2nd Global Conference Migrations and Diasporas incorporating Cultural Diversity as a special focus strand

Saturday 1st December 2018 – Sunday 2nd December 2018 Vienna, Austria

Conference Abstracts and Papers

Fortress Australia – barriers facing intending migrants

Tony Caravella Chisholm Law (migration lawyers), Hong Kong Torture Claims Appeal Board

Key Words: Administration of Australia’s migration law; Barriers to Australian migration

Many say Australia is a desirable place to migrate to.

This paper discusses the barriers a non-Australian seeking to migrate to Australia faces.

It explains the complex labyrinth of laws facing the would-be migrant or refugee. It discusses the processes and procedures would-be migrants face from the time they decide Australia is their destination of choice, through to the making of and paying for an application, the processing of that application, the appeal processes (where they exist), and resettlement. It discusses, critically, the support, or absence of support, a would-be migrant might get from the Department administering Australia’s migration laws, and the support available from the ‘migration assistance sector’.

As background and context, the paper discusses current domestic political, economic and social issues surrounding the migrant debate in Australia, including the debate over the processing of asylum seeker applications who have been accused of entering Australia “illegally”.

The paper discusses the complexities facing those assisting applicants who seek to migrate to Australia created through a highly regulated migration regime. These issues include concerns over unscrupulous and fraudulent migration and education agents who work in the field of providing migration assistance. It will also discuss what critics in Australia have termed as the politicisation of the migration administrative appeals regime.

Refugees, Asylum Seekers, or Work Immigrants? Israel and the Africans-The Case Study of South Tel-Aviv

Liat Steir-Livny Sapir Academic College and the Open University, Israel

Key Words: Refugees, asylum seekers, work immigrants, Israeli politics, Israeli Holocaust awareness.

The subject of refugees, asylum seekers and work immigrants from Africa creates controversy and stormy debates in Israel. Since the beginning of the millennium, approximately 37,000 refugees, asylum seekers, and work immigrants from Africa have entered Israel through the border with Egypt. Most of them arrived between 2007-2012, before a wall which was built between Israel and Egypt limited the influx. Most of the refugees were bussed from the border to very poor neighborhoods in South Tel Aviv which were already inhabited by Israelis from lower socio-economic sectors of society. The residents, already facing a daily struggle with poverty, found themselves surrounded by additional needy people, a situation which further deteriorated the already-neglected neighborhoods.

The talk will focus on the ways in which politicians and public figures, especially on the political right and far-right, who refer to them as “infiltrators” and support their deportation from Israel have backed the neighborhoods people’s cry for help, using it as a tool to highlight the need for deportation. Politicians, public figures and activists, especially on the political left, who reject deportation, protest against these attempts. The focus of the talk is a violent demonstration that took place on May 23, 2012, against the Africans in South Tel Aviv, that was organized by the right and far-right. The talk will show how this demonstration symbolizes the dichotomy in Israel between the right and left regarding this topic. During the demonstration, African bystanders were attacked, shop windows were shattered, and some shops were looted. Members of the left called this demonstration “Israeli Kristallnacht,” referring to the attack on Jewish businesses, synagogues, and individuals in 1938 Nazi Germany, casting right-wingers as perpetrators.

Expanding the Legal and Political Boundaries of “Sanctuary” Through Practices of Compassionate Migration in the American Context

William F. Arrocha Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey California (MIIS)

Key Words: Sanctuary, Compassionate Migration, Irregular Migration, Nativism, Xenophobia, Exclusion, Inclusion

The history of townships and cities granting sanctuary to those fleeing from state and non-state violence is rooted in a deep history of hospitality and compassion. As we are witnessing a dangerous rise in xenophobia and nativism accompanied by policies of exclusion, we are also witnessing, as a counter-hegemonic response to the former, a rising number of “sanctuary” jurisdictions. Today the number of “sanctuary” jurisdictions in the United States has risen to nearly 500, representing a massive expansion of spaces where state and local governments are implementing policies that shelter irregular immigrants from being detained and deported by immigration authorities in spaces considered under the exclusive jurisdiction of state and local authorities. Although sanctuary cities, counties, and states are mainly focused on restricting their cooperation with federal authorities, their scope and reach, which includes cooperating with a growing number of social networks supporting “sanctuary”, are pushing the legal boundaries of state and local governments regarding new forms of inclusion for those immigrants who find themselves in an irregular situation. As a result, irregular immigrants are enjoying more freedoms and rights. Despite the institutional and informal counter-hegemonic responses to today’s policies of exclusion, which are framed in an increasing criminalization and securitization of migration, this paper proposes the pressing need for the sanctuary movement in the U.S. to embrace the concept and practice of Compassionate Migration. Furthermore, this paper would also like to suggest that by embracing Compassionate Migration, local and state communities can drive the federal government to reconsider the social and economic costs of maintaining the present policies of exclusion.

Addressing the Vulnerability Factors to Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Cameroon

Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh Agbor Mary Akondip

-no abstract available-

Place-Making Itineraries of German-Turks in Schleswig-Holstein

Hazel Erdal Baran Bahcesehir University, Faculty of Architecture and Design

Nilay Unsal Gulmez Bahcesehir University, Faculty of Architecture and Design

Key Words: Immigration, Turkish guest-workers, displacement, itinerary of place-making

Turkish immigrants came to Germany for about 60 years ago with the bilateral labor exchange agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and Turkey enacted in 1961. Although this agreement was intended to be short-lived, most of the guest-workers were reunited with their families due to ‘family reunification act’ in 1973 and stayed in Germany. Undoubtedly, departure and arrival, path and goal of the immigrants highlighted the instrumentality of ‘place-making’ as a vehicle for cross-cultural learning, individual and collective actions, and the aim of striking roots. While trying to strike roots, they moved from one place to another in Germany and created their own place to live. This study attempts on reading Turkish migrants’ ways of making place through their personal/authentic integration attitude and itinerary with regards to their relationship with the built environment.

The research occurred at the place of origin of these primary recruitment processes, a small town Schleswig-Holstein, in order to gain a comprehensive insight into these contracts. The outcomes of guest worker’s place-making practices are the expression of the ever-changing values, how they perceived their environment, and how they related their identity with their dwellings.

For the case study, a ‘qualitative research’ is conducted in form of semi-structured in-depth interviews with guest workers from the first generation and their descendants. Old photographs of immigrant dwellings are also observed and noted. As these interviews are made in the dwellings of the immigrants, this research is also supported by visual research, namely the photo-interviewing. Moreover, an itinerary of immigrant settlement changes has been mapped in order to understand whether they were in search of their ideal homes? Obtained results regarding settlement changes are documented using various mapping techniques.

Identity Crisis of Indian Diasporas in Contemporary Sri Lankan Society; the Case of Colombo Chettiars and Negombo Bharathas

Sriyani Gunarathne University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Key Words: Indian diasporas, Colombo Chettiars, Negombo Bharathas, multi-cultured, ethnic communities, citizenship, migrant communities, ethno-nationalism, diasporic identity

As many other Asian societies contemporary Sri Lankan society is a multi-cultured plural society with number of ethnic communities of different origin. Among these, Sinhalese constitute the majority; the Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils together form the second largest ethnic group and Muslims constitute the third. There are also nearly fourteen microscopic business communities of Indian origin; Chettiars, Bharathas, Memons, Parsis, Borahs and Marwaris etc. who migrated in the colonial period and played influential roles in the transformation of the colonial economy of Sri Lanka. Among them Colombo Chettiars and Negombo Bharathas have had a long connection with the Island. When Sri Lanka transformed from a colony to nation with independence in 1948 citizenship emerged as controversial and crucial issue. With transfer of power to the indigenous majority communities, the economic agendas and requirements of citizenship of the new nation these migrant communities became vulnerable to political victimization and were confronted with the critical problem of either expulsion or integration. While most migrant Indians returned to their homeland the Colombo Chettiars and Negambo Bharathas opted to remain in Sri Lanka as citizens of the new independent state and were granted official recognition as distinct ethnic communities in 1984 and 2001 respectively. In the context of aggravating ethnic politics and ethno-nationalism in post-independence Sri Lanka these communities confronted a complex situation of safeguarding their economic and political strength and also their diasporic identity. Focus of this research is to examine the complex strategies adopted by these communities to safeguard their diasporic interests and identity. The research for this study will use primary archival sources and data from ethnological and biographical studies of different Indian communities and personal interviews.

Globalisation and Cultural Conflicts

Joan Bailey

Key Words: Globalisation, Cultural Conflict, Identity, Cohesion

Globalization is a dynamic development that impacts differently on countless cultures around the world. For some it is a positive experience, enabling and allowing social integration which allows the breaking down of barriers and stereotypes that be a positive move to making then lives of the global world more stable. The alternative perspective however is one that creates fragmentation and instigates disintegration which can lead to societal breakdown amongst cultures.

This paper focuses on this stand point arguing that there is a link between globalisation and the increase in conflict that we are facing in modern day society. This results from separate and distinct groups being forced to integrate in shared spaces where politics and economics determine outcomes. In these situations, difference and diversity become explicit and these accelerate the inequalities that exist amongst cultures which in turn lead to internalised struggles and instabilities. As these intensify different cultural groups identify the discrete ways in which they experience life in a multicultural society and these result in conflicts and increasing acts of violence.

Creating cohesive communities against this global construct is difficult yet challenging, even more so when we consider another dimension to this scenario, that being the issue of identity. This distinct understanding of one’s self can become violated when different cultures experience conflict. It has been said that violence between social groups can be a means of trying to stabilize ethnic identity amid the uncertainties of globalization. This means that struggles are destined to arise within the groups as they struggle to redefine themselves in a rapidly globalizing world.

Drawing on an ethnographical study with young people two case studies are presented that look at the impact of globalisation on communities, the erosion of cultural identity, the rise of conflict and the failure to take this on board for building cohesive communities.

Analysing the Obstacles to the Achievement of the Local Integration of Refugees in Europe

Miracle Chinwenmeri Uche Stichting Unity in Diversity, The Netherlands

Key Words: Humanitarian migration, Integration, socio-cultural integration, refugees, host communities, sustainability.

The term refugee crisis has almost become a household terminology; not only has the crisis lingered for decades, it has in turn created more problems to which the international community seeks solutions for. The need for durable solutions to the Refugee crisis stems from the protracted and equally continuous nature of the situation, forcing many states to shot their doors to reception of new asylum seekers, while the UNHCR and other stakeholders desire longer lasting solutions beyond life in an asylum camp. The UNHCR has however promoted Local integration as one of the solutions to the so called “crisis”.

For Europe however, integration of refugees has become the new challenge. Not only due to the apparent differences between the hosting societies’ culture, religion and general way of life from that of refugees, but with many systems designed to focus on refugees’ economic integration. Additionally, when it is done from a one-sided approach where the burden to integrate mostly lies on refugees, it has become increasingly crucial to re-evaluate integration policies for the sake of sustainability, and to prevent the perpetuation of undivided societies.

A two-sided approach of integration, based on all the types of integration (legal, economic and socio-cultural) will be a great start when looking into policies and projects created to handle this challenge. For this to be successful, it will be multifaceted, involving different layers of the society, and must including a reformation of relevant policies and laws.

It based on this premise that our research will look into the predominant laws on integration in the European Union, the actual integration practices widely adopted in this region, using (The Netherlands as a case study country), to gauge the sustainability of local integration based on status quo.

Poverty Eradication and Temporary Migration Controversies Between UN and WTO Nino Parsadanishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia

Key Words: Temporary Migration, Poverty Eradication, Sustainable Development, UN, ILO, WTO, GATS

The first goal of the Agenda 2030, being negotiated within the framework of UN, is to free human race from the tyranny of poverty bringing it to an end in all its forms and everywhere, emphasizing on three components of sustainable development economic, social and environmental. Moreover facilitation of employment, rising standards of living and considering the special needs of developing countries for the purposes of economic growth and therefore poverty eradication, are put into the key policy priorities of UN/ILO and WTO and are prescribed in the founding documents of the organizations. In this light paper concentrates on two main challenges namely, –the embodiment of employment and raising of standers of living in all key documents of UN/ILO and WTO in line with the uncertainties existent in practice of World Trade to include social clause in the operational agenda, unwilling to facilitate temporary movement of natural persons (GATS mode 4) as a tool for eradication of irregular migration. Primary aim of the present paper is to show the links between trade and labor and to claim the inescapable existence of social clause within WTO/GATS system, drawing the lines to the importance of bringing trade and therefore effective execution mechanisms within the process of poverty eradication and promotion of shared prosperity as a component of international development agenda intimately connected to the sustainable development goals, with due consideration of special economic needs of developing and least developed countries and WTO’s strongest growth-promoting effects, in line with the promotion of cross border temporary movement of natural persons to deliver services.

China’s Minority Policy in Xinjiang and Uyghur Migration Sandeep Kumar Jawaharlal Nehru University, India

Key Words: China, Xinjiang, Uyghur, Migration

China’s Xinjiang province, which in Chinese official parlance known as Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), is an important as well as sensitive region for the country. Its importance from the strategic, economic and security points of view has compelled the Chinese Central government to pay special attention to this northwestern border where it fears internal subversion, especially by Uyghur Muslims who are in majority here, and external threat as well. Hence Chinese Central government has been devising policies, which suit to its idea of national unity and territorial integrity on one hand, but goes against the Uyghur people on the other. This has led to a serious problem between the Uyghurs and the Chinese state. China has termed the problem of separatism, extremism and terrorism as ‘Three Evils’ and also termed Uyghurs as terrorists, and has taken all possible, even harsher, steps to tackle the situation in Xinjiang. Uyghur left with no options except migrate to neighbour Central Asian countries, Europe and USA etc. In this paper I would highlight how the Chinese Central government‘s policies ignited Uyghur dissent and compelled them to migrate from Xinjiang to various countries across the world and how the migration of Uyghurs has paved way for further consolidation of Chinese position in Xinjiang. It will also discuss the role of host countries where they have migrated across the world in raising the Uyghur issues; and attitude of China towards the host countries to contain the Uyghur.

This paper will be based on primary sources materials like various statutes, decrees, White Papers and laws passed by the Chinese government and various secondary sources.

Syrian Migration In Lebanon: Peculiarities and Problems Elena Savicheva Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Russia Key Words: Middle East, Lebanon, Syria, conflict, migration, refugees Abstract. The Lebanese Republic is a state that combines both the role of a donor-country of refugees and a recipient country that provides shelter for forced migrants. Immigration to Lebanon, including migration from neighbouring Syria, has increased significantly in recent years due to political and ethno-religious conflicts and armed clashes in the Middle East. The relevance of this issue is determined by the fact that this process, in addition to a significant change in the life of a migrant, has a complex and diverse influence on the development of the host society, as well as on the situation in the region as a whole. The paper reveals the features of Syrian migration to Lebanon, determine the internal and external factors that influence on it and trace the impact of this process on the Lebanese society. The Syrian migration to Lebanon raises concern to both – the leadership of this small Arab country and ordinary Lebanese, as it has a negative impact on the political and socio-economic situation in the country, exacerbating such problems as labour market tension, unemployment, security, the growth of crime, etc. Alertness towards forced migrants leads to a negative perception of Syrian refugees by the Lebanese society. As a result of the research the author concludes that the refugee problem is one of the key problems in the region. Migration is a complex multifaceted phenomenon. It often causes social, economic, ethnic and religious conflicts between migrants and the local population. It raises the need for local authorities to solve the problems related to resettlement and accommodation of refugees, their integration into the society, and also requires the co-ordination of the social institutions activities, the ability of the state to guarantee the implementation of laws and ensure the security of both – its own and foreign citizens.

A Case Study on Cultural Diversity in the Classroom – “The good, the bad and the ugly.” Jane Rösel Schiller International University, Heidelberg

Key Words: cultural diversity loyalty honesty ethics moral fortitude facilitation plagiarism threats inadequacy

The classroom I teach in is a cultural kaleidoscope, very often with as many nationalities as bottoms on seats before me. The students may take the same class because of shared interest, but their respective cultures have fitted them with quite different moral compasses and this throws up a plethora of challenges. Is cheating forgivable if the excuse is perceived inadequacy?

“The good, the bad and the ugly” – strange title you say? Remember the film?

The Good – Blondie is a professional gunslinger who is trying to earn a few dollars.

In my case study, “the good” covers the positive aspects of cultural diversity in the classroom: the enriching cultural exchange among students. And the collectivist sense of belonging, loyalty, support and familiarity – group membership based on language, nationality, religion or the military that binds its members to help one another to earn that degree.

The Bad – Angel Eyes is a hit man who always commits to the task he is paid to do without questioning its legality.

In my classroom, “the bad” is about where individual moral fortitude is choked in the process. Getting the job done by any means available, choosing not to report unethical behaviour out of loyalty to the group are mercenary approaches and frequently involve lying, cheating and plagiarism. Is cheating forgivable if the excuse is perceived inadequacy?

The Ugly – Tuco is a wanted outlaw looking out for his own hide.

In our situation, “the ugly” manifests itself in extremely unethical behaviour – behaviour which may well be “culturally acceptable” for those individuals who are involved. It includes everything from facilitation and the use of paid online writing services to cyber- bullying and willful property damage. While in some cultures such things may be tacitly condoned or openly encouraged, they are, in the classroom, nothing short of morally indefensible.

Sounds like something from a film but it is real life – so how should we deal with it when the Wild West hits town?

State-Sponsored Multiculturalism: Charity or Power? Salah Haddad

Intercultural education must be based on equal educational opportunity. Equity, thus, as Bennett (1986) puts it, is “the heart of multicultural education” (p. 52). According to the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) which specified that intercultural education should be reflected in every subject area. Intercultural education should also permeate into school policies and practices, and the teaching of curriculum content (p. 22).

This paper argues the concepts of intercultural education, examines National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) literature and structures and explores the paradox of this institution representatives and the belief in opportunity for all. I have selected the (NCCA) to carry out the examination. The question of this paper is how can we reach such an equal educational opportunity, while the socio-economic power remains in the hands of the dominant white ethnic group?

Results reveal that while the (NCCA) promotes equal opportunities and representations for all, none of this statutory body’s member reflects and represents the reality of our pluralistic society. In addition, it became apparent that (NCCA) structures embody and represent the norms, values, culture, and history of the dominant social classes in Ireland. These findings suggest that the value of diversity has not yet been recognised within Irish society.

Imbolo Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers: a 21st Century Diasporic Gaze on the American Dream Claudio Braga Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasil

Key Words: Diasporas in fiction, Cameroonian diaspora, diasporic return, American Dream, Imbolo Mbue

The United States of America has always attracted immigrants from all over the world. Once in the US territory, they form diasporic clusters in American cities, in which they attempt to succeed, driven by the notion of the American Dream. But what exactly is the American Dream? How do diasporas understand it in the 21st Century? Does it match the expectations of diasporic subjects? The present work faces the definitional predicaments of the concept of the American Dream, offering a discussion on its main aspects and how diasporas settled in the USA see it nowadays. This is accomplished by the analysis of Behold the Dreamers (2016), a novel by Cameroonian-American writer Imbolo Mbue. The narrative tells the story of the Jongas and the Edwards, both families living in New York City. The Jongas have recently emigrated from Cameroon and hope to make a new life in the US. They truly believe they can succeed, but the 2008 global financial crisis, initiated with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers, challenge the Jongas’ optimistic view of the future. The paper examines the apprehensions, expectations and frustrations of this Cameroonian diasporic family, contrasted with those of the rich and white Edwards, the American family that employs them. As a final point, I describe how contemporary diasporas deconstruct the idealistic view of the American Dream as a dream in which everyone should be able “to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable […], regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position” (ADAMS, 1931). This is demonstrated by the analysis of the Jongas’ rearticulation of the idea of diasporic return, as they are forced to abandon their dreams due to the deterioration of living conditions on the American soil.